The picture facing all settlers at the turn of the century was a daunting one – uncleared land, harsh weather and isolation. Non-Europeans often suffered the additional hardship of discrimination. This helps to explain why the flow of Black American settlers from Oklahoma, begun in 1908 with Canadian government encouragement, was virtually over by 1912. Nevertheless, about 1,000 courageous black souls settled in the province, including Keystone (now Breton).
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